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Earth's Magnetic Core

Earth's magnetic field forms magnetosphere deflecting the sun's plasma storms


The earth's magnetic field


Earth's magnetic shield


Coronal mass ejections


Coronal mass ejections CME


The solar wind pushes and stretches Earth's protective magnetic field.


Sun storm hits earth's shield


Earth's protective magnetic field


Earth Aurora an effect of the sun's plasma storm


Aurora Borealis


Aurora Borealis


Giant coronal ejections


Coronal mass ejections

Aurora - Northern Lights

Giant coronal ejections

Coronal mass ejections


Coronal mass ejections hit earth's outer shield

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Earth’s Core ‘Mysteriously’ Shifts Causing near Simultaneous Antipodal Earthquakes in Central America, South America and Indonesia

Russian scientists are reporting that the Earth’s core has experienced a mysterious ‘shifting’, as yet for unexplained reasons, but has caused near simultaneous earthquakes in both the countries of Indonesia and its antipodal counterparts of Panama, Venezuela and Nicaragua.

United States Space Agency NASA stated; "NASA scientists using data from the Indonesian earthquake calculated it affected Earth's rotation, decreased the length of day, slightly changed the planet's shape, and shifted the North Pole by centimeters. The earthquake that created the huge tsunami also changed the Earth's rotation."

When North Becomes South: New Clues to Earth's Magnetic Flip-Flops

Our planet's magnetic field reverses about once every 200,000 years on average. However, the time between reversals is highly variable. The last time Earth's magnetic field flipped was 780,000 years ago, according to the geologic record of Earth's polarity. It is not a matter of whether it will happen, but when.

Next time Earth's magnetic field flips, compass needles will point South instead of North. But scientists can't say when it will occur, and until now they've disagreed on how long the transitions take.

A new study pins down how long it took for the last four reversals to play out. It also finds that the dramatic turnarounds occur more quickly nearer the equator than at higher latitudes closer to the poles.

That means folks living during the next reversal -- which some scientists speculate might be underway -- will see compasses change and behave differently in different locations.

It is generally accepted that during a reversal, the geomagnetic field decreases to about 10 percent of its full polarity value," Clement said. "After the field has weakened, the directions undergo a nearly 180 degree change, and then the field strengthens in the opposite polarity direction. The magnetic field lines extend out beyond Earth's atmosphere and provide the first line of defense against strong solar storms.

Earth's Magnetic Field Is Fading

Earth's geodynamo creates a magnetic field that shields most of the habited parts of our planet from charged particles that come mostly from the sun. The field deflects the speeding particles toward Earth's Poles.

Without our planet's magnetic field, Earth would be subjected to more cosmic radiation. The increase could knock out power grids, scramble the communications systems on spacecraft, temporarily widen atmospheric ozone holes, and generate more aurora activity.

Cracks in Earth's Defenses Let Space Storms In

Earth's magnetic field emanates from the poles and extends beyond the atmosphere and past the highest Earth-orbiting satellites.

Earth's natural defenses are routinely compromised by huge cracks that open up for hours, allowing space storms to pour through like a hurricane through an open window.

The magnetic field absorbs the brunt of a solar storm, which is a huge cloud of charged particles, ions and electrons. The Sun constantly spits out a "wind" of these particles. During intense activity, it can shoot a coronal mass ejection (CME) our way. A CME -- the most damaging sort of solar storm -- is to the solar wind what a hurricane is to a summer breeze.

Magnetic Storms Rip Through Earth's Magnetosphere

A magnetic storm produces about a million megawatts of electricity, enough to power the United States. the Sun regularly sends massive solar explosions of radiative plasma with the intensity of a billion megaton bombs hurtling through the solar system. The travel time for the solar wind from the Sun to the Earth is two to four days.

The Sun's corona can rip open and spew as much as 20 billion tons of material into space -- equivalent to the mass of 200,000 cruise ships. These explosions are known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the hurricanes of space weather.

When a CME ploughs into the solar wind, it can create a shock wave that accelerates particles to dangerously high energies. Behind that shock wave, the CME expands into a huge cloud that engulfs planets in its path with plasma.

The solar wind pushes and stretches Earth's protective magnetic field into a vast, comet-shaped region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere and Earth's atmosphere protect us from the solar wind and other solar and cosmic radiations.

Luckily for us, few CMEs are aimed at the Earth. If a CME erupts on the side of the Sun facing us, the results around Earth can be spectacular and sometimes hazardous.

At the speed of light, flashes of X-rays and ultraviolet rays from the Sun arrive at the Earth in 8 minutes. Hitting the atmosphere they cause disturbances in the ionosphere, which reflects radio signals. Changes in the ionosphere can interrupt short-wave radio transmissions and cause errors in navigation systems.

Also at a high speed, but following a curved path, solar protons and other energetic particles from the Sun reach the Earth in an hour or two. They can harm astronauts, damage spacecraft and if they reach the ground they can cause errors in computers.

Gusts and shocks in the solar wind due to an eruption take a few days to reach the Earth. When they arrive, they buffet the Earth's magnetic shield, the magnetosphere, causing a magnetic storm, which makes compass needles wander. The varying magnetic field can provoke damaging surges of current in long metallic structures such as power lines and pipelines. The magnetic disturbances can also dump particles from space into the upper air, where they cause auroras.

An average solar flare or CME releases, in two hours, enough energy to power the United States for 10,000 years.

Magnetic storms occur when a CME hits Earth's magnetosphere.

Magnetic storms;

• Generate million amp electric currents that distort the magnetosphere and flow down into our upper atmosphere
• Disturb the Van Allen radiation belts, which become filled with "killer electrons" that can pierce the skin of a satellite and the cells of an astronaut
• Cause spectacular, widespread auroras, even at low latitudes
• Damage power systems on Earth and interfere with broadcasting. Magnetic storms can pump extra electricity into our power lines and pipelines, causing blackouts and fuel leaks. In March 1989, a magnetic storm burned up a $36 million transformer in New Jersey and collapsed the entire power grid in Quebec, Canada, leaving six million people without electricity.

In October 2003, huge bursts of plasma generated powerful electric fields, pushing Earth's outer atmosphere (plasmasphere), into interplanetary space. Without the plasmasphere in the safe zone, a new, intense radiation belt formed in the region.

From Oct. 22 to Nov. 4, 2003, the Sun unleashed the most powerful solar flares ever detected, at least eight solar shocks reached Earth, severely disturbing its protective magnetic field and affecting orbiting spacecraft. All told, about 17 major flares erupted on the Sun during those two weeks, the result of energy building up in the Sun's magnetic field lines until they become strained enough to suddenly snap like an overstretched rubber band. The related coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the largest explosions in the solar system, capable of launching up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas into space, normally at speeds of one to two million miles an hour. While we're protected by Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere, power grids, radio and GPS signals, satellites, and astronauts in space are vulnerable. To call the Sun active in late October / early November is an understatement. Within a two-week period, the Sun released an unusually high number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) into space, and experienced explosions many times more powerful than anything ever observed.

Between January 15th and 20th 2005, a new sunspot that appeared on January 11th, unleashed two X-class solar flares, sparked auroras as far south as Arizona in the United States, and peppered the Moon with high-energy protons. On January 20th, 2005, a giant sunspot named "NOAA 720" exploded. The blast sparked an X-class solar flare, the most powerful kind, and hurled a billion-ton cloud of electrified gas (a "coronal mass ejection") into space. Solar protons accelerated to nearly light speed by the explosion reached the Earth-Moon system minutes after the flare--the beginning of a days-long "proton storm." The Jan. 20th proton storm was by some measures the biggest since 1989. It was particularly rich in high-speed protons packing more than 100 million electron volts (100 MeV) of energy. Here on Earth, no one suffered. Our planet's thick atmosphere and magnetic field protects us from protons and other forms of solar radiation. It almost happened again last month. On April 25, 2005, small sunspot emerged and--déjà vu--it grew many times wider than Earth in only 48 hours. This time, however, there were no eruptions.

Note: X-class flares are big; they are major events that can trigger planet-wide radio blackouts and long-lasting radiation storms. M-class flares are medium-sized; they generally cause brief radio blackouts that affect Earth's polar regions. Minor radiation storms sometimes follow an M-class flare. Compared to X- and M-class events, C-class flares are small with few noticeable consequences here on Earth.

Sunspots are areas of intense magnetic energy, cooler and darker than the surrounding surface of the thermonuclear furnace. Sometimes the magnetic fields let loose and huge amounts of radiation and charged particles are hurled into space.

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